Marketing: What It Is and How It Works (With an Example)

Do you want to start a business or grow your existing one? If so, you need to know about marketing. In this blog post, we’ll discuss the different types of marketing and how you can use them to grow your business. We’ll also provide some examples of how successful businesses have used marketing to their advantage.
So whether you’re just starting out or you’re looking to take your business to the next level, read on for everything you need to know about marketing!

What is Marketing?

Marketing is all about telling people about your business and the things you sell. It’s like sharing a story to get their attention and make them interested in what you have. The goal is to attract customers and make them want to buy from you.

Marketing helps your business grow by reaching the right people and making more sales. It’s an important way to connect with customers and build a good reputation for your business.

Why is Marketing Important?

Marketing is really important because it helps your business grow and become successful. It lets people know about your products or services, so they can buy from you. By doing marketing well, you can stand out from other businesses and make more sales.

It also helps you understand what customers want, so you can make them happy and keep them coming back. When you do good marketing, people will remember your business and tell others about it. So, marketing is like a secret weapon that helps your business thrive!

History of marketing from 1990 to 2023

Marketing has changed a lot since the 1990s. Businesses used TV and print ads to promote themselves. But when the internet became popular, everything shifted. Digital marketing became a big thing, with strategies like SEO, PPC ads, and social media marketing taking over.

In the 2010s, marketing became even more personal. Businesses started using data to send messages that suited specific groups of customers. This will keep happening in the 2020s, with more businesses relying on data for their marketing efforts.

Some important marketing trends from 1990 to 2023:

  1. Digital marketing is on the rise: More people are using the internet to find and learn about products, so businesses are spending more on digital marketing. By 2023, more than half of marketing spending will be on digital marketing.
  2. Social media marketing is popular: Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are really useful for businesses to reach the right people. By 2023, about one-fifth of marketing spending will go to social media marketing.
  3. Data-driven marketing is getting popular: Businesses are using data to send messages that fit specific customer groups. This will continue as businesses rely more on data for their marketing efforts.
  4. Personalization is important: Businesses are focusing on making their messages more personal for specific groups of customers. This will continue as businesses become more customer-focused in their marketing efforts.

Types of Marketing

1. Advertising

Advertising is a form of marketing where businesses pay to display promotional messages about their products, services, or brand in various media channels. The goal is to get people interested in what they’re offering and encourage them to buy it. Businesses create eye-catching ads with catchy slogans and pictures to grab people’s attention.

They measure the success of their ads by looking at things like sales and customer feedback. It’s important for businesses to be honest and fair in their ads.

Some common types of Advertising:

  • Print advertising is when businesses put ads in newspapers, magazines, and other printed materials. People who read these publications see the ads. It’s a way for businesses to reach specific groups of people and tell them about their products or services.
  • Broadcast advertising is when businesses show ads on TV or play them on the radio. People who watch TV shows or listen to the radio hear or see the ads. It’s a way for businesses to reach many people and share their message using sound or pictures.
  • Online advertising is when businesses put ads on websites, social media platforms, and other places online. These ads can be banners, pop-ups, or sponsored content. People who use the internet and visit those websites or platforms see the ads. Online advertising helps businesses target certain groups of people and reach a lot of potential customers online.

2. Public relations

Public relations is when businesses or organizations use the media to say good things about themselves without paying for it. They do this by sending news stories, organizing events, or giving interviews. The goal is to make people like the business and trust it more.

Public relations is different from advertising because it’s free. Businesses build relationships with journalists and famous people so the media will want to say good things about them.

Public relations is important for businesses to make people think well of them. It can help businesses become more popular, get more customers, and solve any issues that may come up.

Public relations can help businesses in many ways:

  • Introducing a new product or service
  • Making more people know about the brand
  • Getting more people interested in buying from the business
  • Handling a crisis or a problem

3. Sales promotion

Sales promotion is a marketing strategy that uses special offers to get customers to buy a product or service. It’s a way to make people more aware of a brand and to increase sales.

Sales promotions can help businesses get more customers and sell more products. They need to be used in a way that makes sense for the business’s goals and marketing plan.

Some common types of sales promotions:

  • Discounts: Businesses lower the price of a product or service to attract customers.
  • Coupons: Customers can get a discount by using a coupon when they buy something.
  • Free samples: Businesses give out free samples of a product so people can try it before they buy it.
  • Loyalty programs: Businesses reward customers for buying from them multiple times.
  • Sweepstakes and contests: Businesses offer prizes to customers who enter and win.

4. Direct marketing

Direct marketing is a special kind of marketing where businesses talk directly to customers. Businesses use different methods to reach people and tell them about their products, services, or ideas.

Direct marketing lets businesses have direct conversations with potential customers. It can be a good way to get people interested and make sales. But businesses need to be careful and respectful in how they do direct marketing, making sure people actually want to hear from them.

Some common ways businesses do direct marketing:

  1. Direct Mail: Businesses send letters, brochures, or catalogs through the mail to people’s homes.
  2. Email Marketing: Businesses send emails to people’s email addresses to tell them about their products or special offers.
  3. Telemarketing: Businesses make phone calls to people to talk to them about their products or services.
  4. SMS Marketing: Businesses send text messages, also known as SMS (Short Message Service), directly to people’s mobile phones.

5. Personal selling

Personal selling is a type of marketing that involves face-to-face interaction between a salesperson and a potential customer. It is a very effective way to build relationships with customers and close deals.

The good things about personal selling are:

  1. Special attention: The salesperson gives each customer special attention and listens to what they want.
  2. Trust: Talking in person helps the customer trust the salesperson more. It makes them more likely to buy from them again.
  3. Closing deals: Personal selling can help close deals because the salesperson can answer questions and show why the product or service is good for the customer.

But there are also some problems with personal selling:

  1. Cost: It can cost a lot of money, especially if a business has many salespeople.
  2. Time: Personal selling takes time, especially if a business wants to talk to a lot of customers.
  3. Training: Salespeople need to be trained well to be good at personal selling. This takes time and money.

6. Digital marketing

Digital marketing is a way to advertise and sell things on the internet using different tools like social media and search engines. It helps companies reach more people, make their brand known, and get more customers. It’s a popular and cost-effective way to market compared to traditional methods.

There are several types of digital marketing that help to reach a wider audience:

  1. Content marketing: Content marketing is when businesses create and share valuable and relevant content to attract and keep a specific audience.
  2. Pay-per-click (PPC) advertising: PPC advertising is when businesses pay to show their ads to people who search for specific keywords on search engines like Google or Bing. The business only pays when someone clicks on their ad.
  3. Social media marketing: Social media marketing is when businesses use platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn to promote their products or services. They can post content or use paid options to reach more people.
  4. Email marketing: Email marketing is when businesses send promotional messages or newsletters to a list of people who have subscribed to their emails. It helps them communicate with customers and promote their offerings.
  5. Influencer marketing: Influencer marketing is when businesses partner with popular social media influencers to promote their brand, products, or services to their followers. It helps reach new audiences and build trust.
  6. Affiliate marketing: Affiliate marketing is when businesses collaborate with affiliates who promote their products or services. The affiliates earn a commission for each sale or lead they generate. It’s a cost-effective way to increase sales.

The Importance of Marketing

Marketing is really important for all businesses, no matter if they are big or small. It helps businesses in many ways:

  1. Increase sales: Marketing strategies and promotions can attract more customers, which means more sales and money for the business.
  2. Attract new customers: Effective marketing can help businesses reach out to people who don’t know about their products or services. By showing how valuable they are, businesses can get the attention of potential customers.
  3. Keep existing customers: Marketing isn’t just about getting new customers, but also about keeping the ones you already have. By regularly communicating and offering special deals, businesses can make sure their customers stay happy and keep buying from them.
  4. Build brand awareness: Marketing makes people know about a business, its products, and what it stands for. By using the same logos and messages, businesses can make people recognize and trust them, which makes it easier for customers to choose them over other businesses.
  5. Stand out from competitors: Marketing lets businesses show what makes them better than their competitors. By talking about unique features, benefits, or great customer service, businesses can be noticed in a crowded market.
  6. Reach new markets: Marketing helps businesses expand into new places or target new groups of customers. By understanding what different people want, businesses can create marketing plans that work for them.
  7. Offer more products or services: Through marketing, businesses can introduce new things to the people who already buy from them or attract new customers who are interested in these new things. This helps the business grow and try new things.

Coca-Cola’s Marketing Strategies

Here, I researched a famous company, Coca-Cola, on how it uses the six types of marketing and what the effects of this marketing were.

  1. Advertising: Coca-Cola spends a lot of money on advertising. They use television, radio, newspapers, websites, and social media to show people their products. Coca-Cola’s ads are known for being creative and new, and they help make the company’s brand famous. Source: Statista.
  2. Public relations: Coca-Cola does things to make people like them and their products. They send out news releases, organize events, and work with famous people like celebrities and athletes to get good publicity. Coca-Cola’s efforts in public relations have made people think better of the company and have helped build relationships with their target customers.
  3. Sales promotion: Coca-Cola gives special offers to encourage people to buy their products. They offer discounts, coupons, free samples, and contests on a regular basis. Coca-Cola’s sales promotions help them sell more products and make people loyal to their brand.
  4. Direct marketing: Coca-Cola directly reaches out to potential customers. They send catalogs, brochures, and email messages to people who might be interested in their products. Coca-Cola’s direct marketing efforts help them find new customers and make more sales.
  5. Personal selling: Coca-Cola has a team of salespeople who visit stores and restaurants to promote their products. They talk to the store owners and convince them to sell Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola’s personal selling efforts help them sell more products and build good relationships with the stores.
  6. Digital marketing: Coca-Cola is very active on social media. They use social media to connect with customers, share news and information about their products, and offer special deals. Coca-Cola also uses digital marketing to show ads to people online who are likely to be interested in their products.


To start or grow your business, understanding marketing is essential. Marketing is about telling people about your business and products, attracting customers, and increasing sales. Different types of marketing include advertising, public relations, sales promotions, direct marketing, personal selling, and digital marketing.

Coca-Cola, a famous company, uses these strategies effectively. They advertise on TV, radio, websites, and social media to showcase their creative ads. They engage in public relations by organizing events and collaborating with celebrities. Sales promotions like discounts and contests encourage people to buy their products. They reach out to potential customers through catalogs, brochures, and emails. Their sales representatives visit stores to convince owners to sell Coca-Cola. They also use social media and targeted online ads for digital marketing.

Marketing helps businesses increase sales, attract new customers, and build a positive image. Whether you’re starting a business or growing one, understanding and implementing marketing strategies are crucial for success.

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