(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
- Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development, and Employment.
- Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
- Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream, and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
- Land Reforms in India.
- Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
- Investment Models.
- Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
- Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Biotechnology, and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
- Conservation, Environmental Pollution, and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
- Disaster and Disaster Management.
- Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
- Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
- Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
- Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
- Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment
- Meaning of Planning
- Need for Planning in Economic Development
- Imperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural Planning
- Objectives of Planning
- Indian Planning History
- Techniques of Indian Planning
- Achievements & Failures of Indian Planning
- Shortcomings of Planning in India
- NITI Aayog Vs. Planning Commission
Mobilisation of Resources
- Types of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural, etc.
- Need for Resource Mobilisation
- Role of Savings & Investment
- Government Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)
- Banking Sector & NBFCs
- Capital Market
- External Sources – FDI, ODA, etc.
- Public Borrowing & Management of Public Debt
- Challenges in Mobilising Resources for Development
- Steps That Can Be Taken
Growth & Development
- Meaning of Development & Growth
- Difference between Development & Growth
- Determinants of Growth & Development
- Importance & Limitations of Economic Growth
- Jobless Growth
- Pro-Poor Growth
- Balanced & Unbalanced Growth
- Dimensions of Development
- Measurement & Indicators of Development
- Approaches to Development:
- Market-Based Approach
- Role of State and Planned Approach
- Mixed Economy Approach
- Challenges to Development & Growth
- Nature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. Informal
- Terms Related to Employment – Labour Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population, etc.
- Sectoral Distribution of Employment
- Quality of Employment
- Causes of Lack of Employment
- Restructuring of Workforce
- Government Initiatives for Generating Employment
Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It
- What is Inclusive Growth?
- Elements of Inclusive Growth
- Need for Inclusive Growth
- Indicators of Inclusive Growth
- Challenges in Achieving Inclusive Growth in India
- 12th FYP & Inclusive Growth
Need for Government Budgeting
Components of the Government Budget
- Revenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue Expenditure
- Capital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital Expenditure
Changes in Budgetary Process in 2017
Measures of Government Deficit
- Revenue Deficit
- Fiscal Deficit
- Primary Deficit
Other Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.
Land Reforms in India
- The rationale for Land Reforms
- Components of Land Reforms
- Impact of Land Reforms
- Problems in Implementation of Land Reforms
- The success of Land Reforms
- Recent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.
Effects of Liberalization on the Economy
Phase of Liberalisation
- Impact on Different Sectors of the Economy
Changes In Industrial Policy & their Effects on Industrial Growth
- Industrial Policy Before 1991
- Industrial Policy After 1991
- Phases of Industrial Growth
- Linkage Between Economic Reforms and Economic Outcomes
- Weaknesses and Failures of Industrial Policies
- National Manufacturing Policy
- Make in India
Need for Investment
Sources of Investment
Types of Investment Models
- Domestic Investment Models
- Public Investment Model
- Private Investment Model
- Public-Private Participation Investment Model
- Foreign Investment Models:
- FII, etc.
- Sector Specific Investment Models
- Cluster-Based Investment Models
Investment Models Followed by India
Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country
- Importance of Cropping Pattern
- Types of Cropping Pattern
- Reasons Why Cropping Pattern Differ
- Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern
- Emerging Trends in Cropping Pattern
- Long-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern
Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage
- Modes of Irrigation
- Sources of Irrigation
- Choosing an Irrigation System
- Problems Associated with Irrigation
- Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans
- Environmental Effects of Irrigation
- Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms
- Need for a National Water Policy
Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints
- Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.
- Role of FCI
- Regulated Markets
- Cooperative Marketing
- Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process
- National Agricultural Market (NAM)
- Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO)
- Contract Farming
- Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities
E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions
Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices
- Agricultural Pricing Policy
- Rationale for Subsidies
- Types of Subsidies
- Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsidies
- Clash with WTO Agreements
Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping
- Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.
- Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS
- Need to Improve the Working of PDS
- Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunaes Associated with PDS
- Steps Taken by Government in this Regard
Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security
- Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India
- Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution
- Need for Food Security
- NFSM And the Food Security Related Government Initiatives
Economics of Animal-Rearing
Food Processing & Related Industries in India
- Scope & Potential in India
- Constraints and Challenges
- Upstream & Downstream Requirements
- Supply Chain Management
- Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Chemicals in Food
- Artificial Sweetening Agents
- Food Preservatives
- Neurologically Active Drugs
- Antiseptic and Disinfectant
- Anti-Fertility Drugs, etc.
- Synthetic detergents
Microwave Oven, etc.
Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
- Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
- Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
- Satyendra Nath Bose
- Meghnad Saha
- Homi Jehangir Bhabha
- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
- A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
- Vikram Sarabhai
- Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
- Har Gobind Khorana
- Tessy Thomas
- C.N.R. Rao
Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology
- IT & Computers
Awareness in Different Fields
- IT & Computers
Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights
- Need for Intellectual Property Rights
- Types of IPR
- IPR Regime in India
- International Agreements Related to IPRs
- Geographical Indicators
- Recent Issues – Evergreening, Compulsory Licensing, Prominent Cases, etc.
BIODIVERSITY & ENVIRONMENT
What is Biodiversity?
Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.
Importance of Biodiversity – Ecosystem Services, BioResources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits, etc.
Reasons for Loss of Biodiversity
- In-situ & Ex-Situ
- Eco-Sensitive Areas
- Ecological Hotspots
- National Guidelines, Legislations & Other Programmes.
- International Agreements & Groupings
Environmental Pollution & Degradation
Types of Pollution & Pollutants
Impact of Pollution & Degradation
- Ozone Layer Depletion and Ozone Hole
- Greenhouse Gas Effect & Global Warming
- Acid Rain
- Hazardous Waste, etc.
Causes/Sources of Pollution & Degradation
Prevention & Control of Pollution & Degradation
National Environment Agencies, Legislations and Policies
International Environment Agencies & Agreements
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
- What is EIA?
- Indian Guidelines & Legislations
- EIA Process
- Need & Benefits of EIA
- Shortcomings of EIA in India
- Measures to Make EIA Effective
- Types of Disasters
- Management of Disasters
- Community Level Disaster Management
- Government Initiatives on Disaster Management
Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism
- Factors Responsible for Spread of Extremism
- Steps that State can be Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to Underdevelopment
Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security
Threats from Non-State Actors
- J&K Separatism
- Left-Wing Extremism
- North East Insurgency
- Terrorism in Hinterland & Border Areas
- Right-Wing Terrorism
Reasons for Spread of Terrorism
Institutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal Security
Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks
- Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
- Challenges in Managing Social Media
- Steps That Can be Taken
Basics of Cyber Security
- Cyber Security
- Threats to Indian Cyber Security
- Steps were taken by India
- International Cooperation on Cyber Security
- Cyber Warfare
- Terms Associated with Cyber Security
Money-Laundering & its Prevention
- Process of Money Laundering
- Impact of Money Laundering
- Challenges to Tackle Money Laundering
- Steps to Counter Money Laundering
- Terms Related To Money Laundering
Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
- Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & Terrestrial
- Land Boundary Disputes with Neighbours
- India’s Policy in Border Area Security Management
Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism
- Types of Organised Crime
- Challenges in Controlling Organised Crime
- Indian Context – Link between Organised Crime & Terrorism
Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate
- Central Armed Police Forces
- Central Paramilitary Forces
- Security & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc.